Brand New Zealand


  • Workout normal safety precautions in brand new Zealand. Utilize good judgment and appearance down for suspicious behavior, while you would in Australia. Monitor the news as well as other sources for modifications to local travelling conditions.
  • Make sure you obtain appropriate travel insurance and know very well what activities and circumstances are included in your insurance plan, particularly if you are taking part in snowfall or adventure sports. See Wellness.
  • If undertaking adventure tasks, make your very own enquiries about safety criteria and climate.
  • New Zealand is susceptible to earthquakes and volcanic task. See additional information for comprehensive details about what to do in an earthquake or other normal disaster.
  • See Travel Smart for basic advice for several travellers.

Entry and exit

Australian citizens travelling on an Australian passport, or Australian residents whom hold a present Australian resident return visa, don’t need a visa or allow to visit brand new Zealand. However, Australians with criminal convictions or who’ve been deported from any nation should contact the nearest High Commission or Consulate of the latest Zealand well prior to travel for advice on visa requirements.

Visa and other entry and exit conditions (particularly currency, traditions and quarantine regulations) can change at brief notice. Contact the nearest High Commission or Consulate of the latest Zealand well in advance of travel, or consult the brand new Zealand Immigration provider for the many up to date information.

New Zealand has strict quarantine regulations and immediate fines are given for failing to declare things for quarantine on arrival.

Australian residents who hold dual Australian and brand new Zealand citizenship should use a present Australian passport to enter or leave Australia.

Australian passports needs to be valid in the day of arrival in brand new Zealand.

Safety and security

Criminal Activity

The levels of unlawful activity in New Zealand are similar to Australia. Expensive items left in automobiles and campervans are often targeted by thieves.


Terrorism actually danger around the world. See our Terrorist Threat Overseas bulletin.

Cash and valuables

Your passport is just a valuable document that is popular with criminals whom may attempt to use your identity to commit crimes. It should often be kept in a safe destination. You are needed by Australian legislation to report a lost or stolen passport on line or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate as quickly as possible.

Local travel

You can make use of an Australian driving licence to drive in New Zealand for optimum of 12 months.

Take specific care when travelling by road, as ice, snow, fog and high winds can cause hazardous road conditions. Heavy rain can lead to land slips across roadways. Information on road closures and warnings can be found during the brand new Zealand Transport Agency and brand new Zealand vehicle Association web sites.

Roads in mountainous surface and also to most ski fields in many cases are slim, unpaved and may not need safety barriers. Some roadways may need the usage of snowfall chains or may simply be accessible to four wheel drive automobiles. Not all railway crossings have actually barriers, especially in country areas. For further advice, see our road travel page and brand new Zealand Transport Agency’s pamphlet on driving in brand new Zealand.

Most tourists undertake adventure tasks properly in New Zealand. But adventure tourism activities have actually inherent dangers, and there have been several serious accidents involving Australians as well as other tourists, some resulting in death. Some operators happen discovered become negligent. Know that safety requirements may vary between specific operators that can change from those in Australia.  Its your obligation to ensure that your comprehensive travel insurance policy covers all of your tasks.

Travellers need certainly to make unique careful judgements concerning the risks tangled up in specific or group activities and of the safety standards of specific operators. We highly recommend travellers research before you buy from individual operators about the security criteria followed, whether these criteria are applied across the industry, and the dangers mixed up in activity. If appropriate safety requirements are not followed, or safety gear isn’t available, use another provider. Always use available security equipment whether or not others never. Personal locator beacons may be employed from locations throughout brand new Zealand.

Travellers that hold travel insurance and complementary accident or income security insurance should comprehend what circumstances and tasks aren’t included in the policies. See our travel insurance web page.

A helpful web site to aid along with your adventure preparation is Adventuresmart.

Airline safety

The Australian federal government will not provide info on the security of individual commercial air companies or journey paths. See instead the Aviation Safety system site for informative data on aviation safety in brand new Zealand.  

Please also relate to our basic flights page for info on aviation safety and security.


You are susceptible to the neighborhood rules of the latest Zealand, including people that appear harsh by Australian criteria. If you’re arrested or jailed, the Australian federal government does what it could to assist you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can not allow you to get from difficulty or away from prison. Analysis laws before travelling, especially for a long stay.

Penalties for possession and use of also small amounts of ‘soft medications’ may include fines and perchance prison sentences. See our Medications web page.

Some Australian unlawful guidelines, such as those concerning money laundering, bribery of international public officials, terrorism, forced marriage, feminine genital mutilation, youngster pornography, and child sex tourism, apply to Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas might be prosecuted in Australia.

Australian authorities are dedicated to combating sexual exploitation of children by Australians overseas. Australians may be prosecuted at home under Australian son or daughter sex tourism and youngster pornography legislation. These legislation offer serious charges all the way to 25 years imprisonment for Australians whom take part in son or daughter sexual exploitation while outside Australia.


Take out comprehensive travel insurance whenever travelling to brand new Zealand. Understand what tasks and circumstances are covered by your insurance plan.

Ensure the travel insurance covers any international medical expenses, including medical evacuation, before you depart. Concur that your insurance coverage covers you for your time you’re going to be away and check always just what circumstances and activities (including snowfall and adventure sports and tasks) aren’t contained in your policy. Remember, it doesn’t matter how healthy and fit you’re, if you cannot afford travel insurance, you cannot afford to travel. The Australian Government wont pay for a traveller’s medical expenses overseas or medical evacuation costs.

Consider carefully your physical and mental health before travelling overseas. Start thinking about having vaccinations if your wanting to travel. At the least eight days if your wanting to depart, schedulae an appoitment with your doctor or travel hospital for the fundamental wellness check-up, also to discuss your travel plans and any implications for the wellness, specially if you’ve got a current medical problem. The entire world wellness Organization (whom) provides information for travellers and our health web page additionally provides useful information for travellers on remaining healthy.

Reciprocal Health Care Agreement

Brand new Zealand and Australia are signatories up to a reciprocal healthcare agreement. The contract provides Australians with use of government medical facilities and care but doesn’t offer ongoing remedy for current health problems. Furthermore, the agreement will not cover additional accommodation expenses, flights for loved ones or medical repatriation to Australia. The Reciprocal healthcare Agreement doesn’t change the need for travel cover. See Medicare Australia to learn more.

Should you want to be treated in reciprocal wellness agreement you have to advise the local medical staff and show your overall Australian passport or evidence of Australian permanent residency plus valid Medicare card. Further information can be acquired from brand new Zealand Ministry of Health and Medicare Australia.

Accident Compensation Corporation

Travellers to New Zealand who’re hurt in an accident may also be covered for hospital treatment by the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Travellers should be conscious this insurance scheme provides damage cover for a no-fault basis, so individuals who have suffered accidental injury would not have the best to sue the at-fault celebration (aside from exemplary damages). The ACC cover does not continue after you have departed brand new Zealand. As a result we strongly recommended that Australians additionally get appropriate travel cover before travelling to New Zealand. To find out more visit the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) web site.

Travelling with medicine

If you are planning to travel to brand new Zealand with medication, we suggest you consult Medicare Australia and also the New Zealand Customs provider regarding their requirements.

Where you might get assistance

Depending on the nature of your enquiry, your best choice may be to very first contact family, friends, flight, travel agent, tour operator, company or travel insurer. Your travel insurer needs a 24 hour emergency number.

In the event that matter relates to criminal dilemmas, contact the local police within nearest authorities station or regarding the national emergency telephone number 111.

In the event that matter relates to complaints about tourism services or products, contact the company directly. If you’re unsatisfied using their response, you can visit the New Zealand consumer affairs website to lodge a problem, and let your travel representative know.

The Consular Services Charter explains what the Australian federal government can and cannot do to help Australians offshore. For consular help, see contact details below:

Australian Tall Commission

72-76 Hobson Street
Wellington, New Zealand
Telephone: (64-4) 473 6411
Facsimile: (64-4) 498 7103
Facebook: Australia in Brand New Zealand

Australian Consulate-General

Degree 7, cost Waterhouse Coopers Tower
186-194 Quay Street
Auckland City, New Zealand
Telephone: (649) 921 8800
Facsimile: (649) 921 8820

Understand High Commission internet site for information about opening hours and temporary closures that could impact service provision.

In a consular emergency, if you should be unable to contact the High Commission or Consulate-General you can contact the 24-hour Consular crisis Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia. If calling from brand new Zealand call 0800 445 639.

Extra information

Normal catastrophes, severe weather and weather

Normal Catastrophes

Info on normal disasters can be acquired from international tragedy Alert and Coordination System. In cases where a normal disaster occurs, follow the advice of regional authorities. Ongoing updates and advice in the event of any normal catastrophe reaction is going to be found at the Ministry of Civil Defence and crisis Management web site.


Earthquake of 14 November

On 14 November 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake hit the north east associated with the Southern Island. Building and infrastructure damage happened. Many aftershocks have already been felt in your community and much more aftershocks are required. This earthquake additionally impacted the Wellington area. Alocal authorities. ​

Brand new Zealand lies over the boundary of Pacific and Australian tectonic dishes and is susceptible to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. You can find a huge number of earthquakes in brand new Zealand annually, but most of those aren’t experienced as they are either tiny, or really deep in the planet. Every year you can find about 150-200 quakes which are big sufficient to be felt. A sizable damaging earthquake could occur anytime, and can be followed closely by aftershocks that continue for several days or months.

Comprehensive information about what to do within an earthquake or other natural disasters can be obtained from prepare, Get thru web site. In case of an earthquake, advice given by the Earthquake Commission includes:


  • Move no more than several steps to a safe spot, drop, address and hold on
  • Do not attempt to run outside.
  • Remain indoors before the shaking stops. Avoid windows, chimneys, and shelves containing hefty things.

During intercourse

  • Hang on and stay here, and protect your face and body with a pillow and blankets.


  • Move as quick a distance as possible to find a clear spot, from structures, woods and energy lines. Drop toward ground.

In a motor vehicle

  • Decelerate and drive up to a clear place far from structures, trees and power lines. Stay in the automobile along with your seatbelt fastened before shaking stops.

In a good start

  • Stop at the nearest floor and acquire away.

In period after an earthquake, follow the guidelines of regional authorities. Dial 111 in the event of emergency. There is certainly constant risk of earthquakes throughout New Zealand.

Types of Strong/Severe Earthquake task


All oceanic parts of the planet can experience tsunamis, however in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, there exists a more frequent incident of big, destructive tsunamis due to the numerous large earthquakes along major tectonic dish boundaries and ocean trenches. Tsunami alerts in New Zealand are released on the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management website as well as broadcast inside brand new Zealand news. Nevertheless a nearby source tsunami could arrive within minutes and there may possibly not be time for the official warning. Most of New Zealand’s coast line reaches danger of a tsunami.  The Ministry of Civil Defence and crisis Management provides the following advice:

If you are within coast and experience the following:

  • Feel a powerful earthquake that makes it hard to remain true, or a weak rolling earthquake that persists a moment or more
  • View a unexpected increase or autumn in ocean degree
  • Hear loud and unusual noises through the ocean

Go straight away to your nearest high ground, or as far inland as you are able to. Walk or bike when possible.

Usually do not watch for official warnings.

Volcanic Task

Information about volcanic activity at Mt Ruapehu, Mt Tongariro, White Island along with other websites of volcanic activity is found on the GeoNet site. Volcanic eruptions are feasible whenever you want and Australians visiting affected areas should monitor these web sites, and guarantee they’re conscious of the risks and exactly what thing to do in the eventuality of an eruption.


In brand new Zealand, climate can transform quickly and severe climate might be skilled. Climate, forecasts and warnings can be checked at

Australians climbing or hiking are strongly advised to find up to date home elevators environment forecasts and track conditions from local Department of Conservation (DOC) visitor centres or the Department of Conservation web site. Travellers, especially in remote areas, are often stranded and/or hurt because of fast weather changes. Make sure to avoid creeks and streams that could be subject to flash flooding after heavy rains. Always register your details and plans with a DOC Visitor Suggestions Centre and/or advise your family and friends of your plans. A useful site to simply help along with your adventure planning is Adventuresmart.

Private locator beacons are employed from places throughout brand new Zealand.


Parts of brand new Zealand experience bushfires in hot and dry conditions. Always follow local instructions in the event of a bushfire.

Extra Resources

Simply right back from: Bali


Alex and his wife explore the beautiful blue waters of Bali © Alex Howard

Alexander Howard, Destination Editor at Lonely Planet, recently returned from the scuba diving journey in Bali, Indonesia.

Inform us more… we recently became certified scuba divers, so now every potential trip is accompanied by the query, ‘can we plunge here?’ Bali was a simple option: coral-rich, hot waters; great underwater places; and a lot of things you can do between dives.

The bottom line is… Bali is a superb mixture of tropical and Southeast Asian personalities: all of the visions of utopia usually linked to the island are real (crescent beaches, hidden waterfalls and emerald hills), but with the added options that come with a rich culture and a good amount of activities to fulfill all types of people.

Fav activity? On our second day of diving, we took a watercraft out towards waters around Nusa Penida, a little landmass east associated with peninsula that provides Bali its inverted-teardrop form. The location is known for the numerous reefs, manta rays and clear waters. Right here we carried out a ‘drift dive’ where boat deposits united states at one end of reef, we let the present carry us until we finish the plunge, ascend together with ship picks united states up downcurrent. It’s a really relaxing option to plunge.


It’s obvious why tourists flood to see Pura Tanah Lot © Alex Howard

Defining minute? Watching sunlight set over Pura Tanah Lot, an iconic sea temple perched atop a rock formation. Yes, it absolutely was crowded and commercialized. No, I wasn’t the initial person (nor the final) to have a picture of this sunlight simply hardly within the sea’s horizon next to the famous temple. But after having a long day’s checking out the area with my wife, i really couldn’t have thought a better way to get rid of the day.

Good grub? Fusing the cuisines and cultures that populated the hawaiian islands across Southeast Asia and beyond, Indonesia serves up food laden with many different flavors and components. My personal favorite had been the Indonesian basic nasi goreng, which literally equals ‘fried rice’, which sounds lame, I know. But this might ben’t the sort of fried rice that comes in a cardboard takeout package. Cooked with shallots, garlic and sweet soy sauce, it is often offered with shrimp, egg or chicken. Add a small sambal (chili sauce) on the side for an extra kick, and I’m in heaven.

Strange encounter? On a single of our dives, a colorful seafood popped out from behind a bank of stones. Silas, our plunge guide, pointed within fish, making use of his thumb such as the hammer of a gun – reef triggerfish. It absolutely was how big is a skateboard, so not alarmingly big, but big sufficient to attract our attention. Initially, the fish maintained a safe distance, and I also guessed he was as enthusiastic about watching united states as we were him. Then, with a few flicks of their blue tail, he was darting right for us. Luckily Silas was there, waving a steel pole he accustomed mention things regarding the reef. The fish, uncertain about Silas’ frantic waving, paused its torpedo-like course through water. There adopted a strange, underwater dance: Silas waving his pointer-stick such as a lion tamer; the fish flashing left and appropriate. Ultimately, the triggerfish threw in the towel and disappeared behind a yard of fan coral.

Topside, Silas explained it was a titan triggerfish, one of the most aggressive reef fish, specially when guarding their eggs. We most likely occurred upon women who picked us being a band of egg-eating intruders.

Watch the meeting

Want more behind-the-scenes activities? Discover in which Deputy Editor, Emma Sparks, has simply returned from.

LP Pathfinders: top Instagrams from March 2017

This month’s round-up of photographs from our Pathfinders community is ushering within the spring, showing us otherworldly landscapes and teaching united states that a little persistence frequently results in the perfect image.

White Island Volcano, Whakatane, New Zealand

‘The stunning purple, grey and yellowish scenery of White Island Volcano in New Zealand looked like the colour palette have been chosen by Wes Anderson himself.’ – Crystal Egan, @castawaywithcrystal.

Why we enjoy it: The surreal colours and surface of the landscape seem like they could be on another earth. The levels of steam and rocks add level and invite us to imagine just what it would be like whenever we had been appropriate up and checking out a celestial spot.

St James’s Park, London, British

‘Spring in London gets more beautiful every single day, and I’ve been investing the maximum amount of amount of time in the areas as I can. One early morning we stepped through St James’s Park and saw these gorgeous pink blossoms framing water. It summed up every thing i really like concerning the period in London’ – a female in London, @aladyinlondon.

Why we like it: This image is fantastically composed. The pink tree within the the surface of the picture additionally the grassy bank into the reduced section of the image create a glorious normal framework.

Hamburg, Germany

‘Speicherstadt could be the old warehouse region of Hamburg and a must-visit while in the city. The warehouses are now workplaces and flats but through the night with lights, it becomes a magical place.’ – Breathe Around, @breathewus.

Why we like it:  Cities undertake a life of these very own during the night. The soft water in this image additionally the warm glowing lights in building are relaxing – something not available during hours of sunlight.  

Nacpan, Philippines

‘After setting sail from El Nido, we found ourselves approaching the island of Nacpan. Our motorboat anchored so we rode the waves on coastline in kayaks before drying off and heading inland. Once we approached the top of the island, we noticed that the island runs extremely slim and while one part shows us a white-sand coastline, one other shows united states a contrasting tough coastline. The best of both globes, all on one little island.’ – Lina & Dave-Travel Photography, @divergenttravelers.

Why we like it: your competitors for most jaw-dropping element in this image is tough. At the top we’ve the sky with one of these amazing clouds smashing into gorgeous green hills. In the lower area, an idyllic beach and moody ocean collide. It’s fabulous.

Szabadság Bridge, Budapest, Hungary

‘We had been on our way to the Gellert Spa when we came across this beautiful green connection. We waited for the traffic lights to get red therefore I could take a image of a connection in most its splendour… but a cyclist chose to cross the road. Often, good timing can transform an ordinary destination into an exceptional artistic memory.’ – Cory & G Varga, @youcouldtravel.

Why we like it: The symmetry in this image! Can it be more perfect? Even the tyres of this bicycle are arranged just right. The soft colour palette as well as the serene environment are particularly inviting and beckon united states to walk towards the bridge and explore the tranquil city on our personal.

For the opportunity to be featured in our next round-up, join Lonely Planet Pathfinders – our programme for travel-loving bloggers and social content creators. For the time being, you will get more Instagram inspiration by following @lonelyplanet.

LP Pathfinders: video clip of month, March 2017

Screen Shot 2017-04-11 at 12.28.40

On a monthly basis, we curate the very best videos, blogs and Instagrams from our Lonely Planet Pathfinders.

This month’s video clip feature is from Armando Costantino and Melony Candea, of Westfalia Digital Nomads (, whom give us an insight into the workings behind a colourful cemetery in Săpânța, Romania.

The Merry Cemetery – Westfalia digital Nomads

The Merry Cemetery in Săpânța, Romania actually unique cemetery that keeps age-old cultural traditions. We really liked the way they celebrate the everyday lives of those within their community, usually with humour, and the some time attention that switches into each independently carved marker.

A huge thumbs up to Armando and Melony with paired some gorgeous shots for the cemetery with an informative voice-over; together they help supply a fascinating screen on village life in Romania. We specially liked the shots that focused on the intricate craftsmanship.

There were some great submissions this thirty days – a big as a result of those whom shared their latest captures. We particularly enjoyed seeing a brilliantly shot travel journal from Strandloopertjies (, who offered us a peek to their travels around Africa in 2016.  

Look out on our Thorn Tree forum in which we’ll post another distribution call-out. Discover what else our Lonely Planet Pathfinders are as much as (or register yourself!) by looking into the Pathfinders video clip playlist and subscribing to your YouTube channel.

The President while the Bomb, Part III

Here is the third blog post i have written regarding the concern of presidential nuclear authority. When you yourself have unresolved questions, or feel i am using several things for awarded, you could first browse Part I (in which We introduce the issue) and Part II (where I handle several common objections), for those who haven’t already seen them.

One of the several projects I’ve been focusing on the previous many months has, eventually, come to fruition. Way back in late November 2016, i obtained in touch with my friends at NPR’s Radiolab, Latif Nasser and Robert Krulwich, following I’d my Washington Post piece on the question of presidential nuclear weapons authority. The Last product is currently out, as podcast given this is the title of “Nukes”:

Radiolab Nukes

If you’re having difficulty using the Radiolab website to get it (while the podcast begins after having a 5 moment promotion for the next podcast), you’ll download the trimmed MP3 right here.

Radiolab, as numerous of you probably understand, is a show about technology and many other things. The pitches they like have a tendency to revolve around interesting people who, usually, have to be alive become helpful at radio. (and thus, their concerns in many cases are very different from those of historians, whom choose to traffic inside dead.) Latif and I have been friends for some time now (we had been in graduate college together), and also bounced some ideas around for quite some time, and he has pressed me personally before discover “living specimens” for the nuclear age that illuminate interesting concerns.

One of many situations we pointed out in my own Post piece ended up being Harold Hering, the Major who was simply kicked out from the Air Force for asking a “dangerous concern” while training to be a Missile release Officer at Vandenberg Air Force Base. Hering had asked, essentially, exactly how could he, in his Minuteman missile bunker, understand that an order to launch he received from the President have been a appropriate, considered, and sane one? (And if you need to know precisely exactly what Harold asked, pay attention to the podcast, in which we worked to ensure we actually could nail this straight down as most readily useful we could, four years after the reality.) The truth that their determination in asking this question, and their not enough satisfaction using the responses, got him drummed out of the solution had been, I thought, and interesting comment on the nature of just what “reliability” means inside context of nuclear weapons personnel. I had gotten enthusiastic about Harold’s tale as it had been discussed in Congressional testimony from 1976, during the only severe hearings that Congress had on this matter, and there clearly was articles from Parade magazine about him appended towards the hearings.

It had happened to me that while Harold ended up being likely quite old, he had been most likely still alive. We thought it could be worth seeing easily could track him down, and to see if he’d be possibly prepared to speak about their experiences with me, also to be recorded the radio. In tracking him down, We thought I might must use most of my Internet-searching, archive-crawling, database-accessing abilities. A look into’s documents managed to make it clear he was created in Indianapolis, and aided me personally pin down their precise age. A good start, we thought, but with seniors particularly it could be quite difficult getting beyond that, because they are frequently not very wired in to the modern world.

On a whim, however, before actually starting the heavy-duty work, I would personally place their name into Facebook. Sure enough, there he was: the right age, the right place (still staying in Indianapolis), plus Facebook profile picture of him as an USAF officer in 1970s. A great deal for my researching abilities.

I got in contact with Harold, got in touch with Latif and Robert, and thus started our multi-month means of investigating, interviewing, and digging. There have been a few conditions that we thought works best for the Radiolab format: the nuclear string of demand, the tensions between automation and human judgment, the question of exactly how one might “remedy” the current situation (assuming one thought it absolutely was well worth remedying, that we do).

one of the most dramatic sections of Hering's 1973 journal — where in fact the concern he asked got finally translated as a disqualification, delivered before his household. "A more

One of the most dramatic sections of Hering’s 1973 journal — where in fact the concern he asked got finally translated as a disqualification, delivered before his family. “A more false statement has yet to be made,” writes Herald.

We sat in for a amount of the interviews, and offered many additional research. I’ve caused Radiolab in the past, but never quite this close. It was enjoyable. In the act, i got eventually to talk and match a bit with not just Harold — that has been a complete joy, because was the truth that he previously held a log of their troubles within the 1970s, and was prepared to offer it to us — but additionally with scholar and former missileer Bruce Blair, US Representative Ted Lieu, additionally the estimable William J. Perry, the former Secretary of Defense.

We additionally attempted to observe how far i possibly could dig right into a some of the lingering concerns that had kept approaching after my other pieces. One that i must say i wished i really could nail down more, what exactly is the nuclear string of command? Exactly how many folks are in between the President additionally the real utilization of nuclear weapons? In which exactly is the “jump” involving the “political” wing of this US government (e.g., the Executive Branch) while the “military” wing which actually implements your order?

This is a place in which individuals still had pushed me personally after my Post piece. How much could one actually state about such things, as somebody without having a approval? And on exactly what evidentiary grounds could one say it?

"1st Lt. Pamela Blanco-Coca, 319th Missile Squadron missile combat team commander, and her deputy commander, 2nd Lt. John Anderson, simulate key turns of the Minuteman III Weapon System Feb. 9, 2016, in a launch control center inside F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyo., missile complex. Whenever directed by the U.S. President an adequately carried out key turn sends a 'launch vote' to virtually any wide range of Minuteman III ICBMs in a missileer's squadron, with two different launch votes allowing a launch. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Jason Wiese)"

The “farthest end” of this chain of demand: “1st Lt. Pamela Blanco-Coca, 319th Missile Squadron missile combat crew commander, and the woman deputy commander, second Lt. John Anderson, simulate key turns of Minuteman III Weapon System Feb. 9, 2016, in a launch control center within the F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyo., missile complex. Whenever directed by the U.S. President a properly carried out key turn delivers a ‘launch vote’ to virtually any wide range of Minuteman III ICBMs in a missileer’s squadron, with two different launch votes allowing a launch. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Jason Wiese)”

Blair has insisted (in e-mail if you ask me, as well as in our meeting) your entire “could the Secretary of Defense refuse an order” concern was a red herring. The Secretary of Defense, he insisted, was entirely dispensable with regards to the deployment of nuclear weapons. As I noted in my Post piece, there are many descriptions associated with the nuclear chain of demand that imply the Secretary of Defense is necessary, because the “conduit” (my term) involving the political and army globes. It is it true? Blair emphatically said no — but we never ever felt completely comfortable just taking their word because of it. It’s not that We doubted Blair’s sincerity, or their long reputation for research and experience using this subject (besides being a missileer himself, he also invested years researching command and control questions), but I’m a historian, i’d like a document to point to! Collecting good citations is really what historians do.

What’s tricky, here, is there are clear circumstances where in actuality the Secretary of Defense’s work is defined as translating a presidential order as a army outcome. And there are places within the descriptions of various the different parts of the US nuclear demand and control company where in fact the uppermost governmental “unit” may be the nationwide Command Authorities, which will be thought as the President and Secretary of Defense. Which has led a lot of writers to insist that there is a big part here, of some sort. And even we entertain the chance into the Post piece, as well as in the Radiolab piece (my specific meeting ended up being recorded some months ago). The reason is pretty clear — DOD Directive 5100.30 states:

The NCA [National Command Authorities] consists only regarding the President as well as the Secretary of Defense or their duly deputized alternates or successors. The chain of command runs through the President to the Secretary of Defense and through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Commanders of the Unified and certain Commands. The channel of communication for execution of Single built-in Operational Arrange (SIOP) as well as other time-sensitive operations will probably be from NCA through the Chairman of this Joint Chiefs of Staff, representing the Joint Chiefs of Staff, toward executing commanders.

Which generally seems to arranged the Secretary of Defense as an essential the main string. The directive involved just isn’t especially recent (the unclassified version of the directive  dates from 1974), plus it does not explain how important the Secretary of Defense could be.

But over the last couple weeks, while focusing on this episode and my own further digging into the matter, i’ve become convinced that the weight regarding the available proof points to your proven fact that Blair is correct — the Secretary of Defense is not just unneeded, but not also in the nuclear chain of command. Just what convinced me?

2015 - Annex 3-72 Nuclear Operations

First, I found possibly the only bit of military doctrine that really explained, in a clear and concise fashion, how a nuclear order would be performed. Therefore’s not some ancient Cold War archival document… it is from 2015! On the website regarding the USAF’s (appropriately called) Curtis E. LeMay Center for Doctrine Development and Education, one will discover ANNEX 3-72 NUCLEAR OPERATIONS, last updated in-may 2015. It states, in a quality that (after reading a great deal of DOD doctrine) makes me personally want to weep with joy, inspite of the message:

The President may direct the usage of nuclear tools with an execute purchase via the Chairman for the Joint Chiefs of Staff towards the combatant commanders and, eventually, towards the forces in the field working out direct control of this weapons.  

Which seems pretty definitive. Your order jumps instantly from President toward army, by means of the Chairman for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and from there percolates through the system of command, control, and interaction to your different individuals who really turn the secrets and place the “birds” into the air.

Could the doctrine be incorrect? Presumably such things are carefully screened before to be had up as official doctrine, plus it seems about because clear as are, but it’s constantly feasible that something got mangled. But another of good use little bit of evidence is that we asked Perry, the former Secretary of Defense, at point blank if the Secretary of Defense was in the chain of demand. The solution had been a clear “no.” Perry explained that while, presumably the Secretary of Defense would express viewpoints and offered counsel, the President had been under no legal responsibility to just take such counsel, and objection of the Secretary of Defense had no bearing either lawfully or practically.

I don’t know very well what your standard of evidence about such a concern could be, but in person I get the testimony of a previous Secretary of Defense, along with a reasonably up-to-date little bit of Air Force doctrine, to settle the truth for me (about, pending more proof). No other assertions in regards to the nuclear string of command that I’ve seen have quite that kind of fat behind them.

Performs this modification our initial concern, about who might say no? It shifts the attention away from the civilian Secretary of Defense (which really is a civilian task, set up individual in the role is really a retired General, as is currently the way it is) towards the military position for the Chairman regarding the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Could such a person disobey the order? Perry proposed they may in practice make an effort to, but there would be legal effects (e.g., a court martial).

We provided a talk on these issues a week ago during the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Harvard Kennedy class (in which I was a postdoctoral fellow in handling the Atom Program some years ago, and where I keep an active affiliation), and two members associated with audience (one an Air Force officer, another my grad school colleague Dan Volmar, who works regarding the information on nuclear command and control history) remarked that whenever doctrine states “the Chairman associated with the Joint Chiefs of Staff,” it is usually talking about a staff and never someone individual. Which can be to say, it cann’t necessarily indicate someone personage, but alternatively suggests a web of individuals which can be connected to the authority of the personage. I am not sure what would apply in this kind of extraordinary situation, but We thought it was an appealing point out mention.

A slide from my Belfer Center talk on nuclear chain of demand (in the talk, I remove the SecDef from string) — some levity on a severe topic. Graphics constructed with Keynote's form templates (yes, hair is an upside-down message bubble).

A slide from my Belfer Center talk on nuclear chain of demand (inside talk, I wind up getting rid of, the SecDef from the string, per the issues discussed in this article) — the graphical whimsy is just a purposefully some levity on a serious subject. Graphics created using Keynote’s form templates (yes, the hair can be an upside-down speech bubble). And yes, I know i’ve “black boxed” C3 (command, control, and communications) operations in a “and now a miracle occurs” fashion.

I’ve even less faith than before inside indisputable fact that an order of such could be disobeyed. Perhaps not that i do believe the military is desperate to deploy nuclear tools — I’m yes they are not, and in fact I tend to feel that they’ve inside post-Cold War arrive at realize at some deeper level the risks associated with such tools additionally the difficulties they impose on their solutions. But I do think that the nuclear command and control system is set up, both virtually and doctrinally, in order to avoid asking the questions which can be regarded as being into the purview of this “political” part of this equation. From exact same “Annex 3-72” (my focus):

The work of nuclear tools at any degree requires explicit purchases through the President. The type of nuclear tools — overwhelmingly more significant than traditional weapons — is such that their use can create governmental and mental impacts well beyond their bodily impacts. The work of nuclear weapons can result in such unintended consequences as escalation associated with the current conflict or long-lasting deterioration of relations with other nations.  That is why especially others, the decision whether to make use of nuclear weapons is always a political decision and not a armed forces one.

Now, clearly conditions would dictate varying reactions. I’ve faith that the “obviously bonkers” purchase would be in some way prevented (e.g., a frothing, “nuke all of them, ha ha ha,” sort of thing). I’m perhaps not focused on that situation (it’s not outside of the world of individual possibility — all humans are fallible, numerous develop different kinds of mental disease, etc.), but I am focused on the things I give consideration to to be “ill-advised” orders, or “bad idea” sales, or “spur associated with the minute” orders that are considerably less apocalyptic (at the least on the area) than, state, a full nuclear trade.

What would the armed forces do in that situation, in case a properly authenticated, correctly-formatted “execute order” came to them on their protected channels? I don’t have actually faith they’d abort it. Perhaps you do — that’s fine, and I appreciate the company of optimists. But i simply wish to point out, the notion that the system won’t are meant isn’t real “check.” it is simply hoping things will break in a fashion that would be convenient. I do believe we can do better, and I also think that the effects from the risk of the rash use of nuclear weapons by an American President — any President — large enough to warrant trying to produce a better (if not perfect) system, no matter if one believes the likelihood of anything happening is low.

2010s, Command and control, Donald Trump

Citation: Alex Wellerstein, “The President together with Bomb, Part III,” Restricted Data: The Nuclear Secrecy weblog, April 10, 2017, accessed April 24, 2017,

Behind the ‘zines: Lonely Planet Traveller’s May issue

Staff through the UK and United States editions of the magazine get planning

Staff from UK and United States editions of this magazine get preparing

The new issue of Lonely Planet Traveller UK has simply hit the racks, which thirty days we’re sharing our travel secrets from all over the world – from crazy corners in New Zealand and off-the-beaten-track India towards concealed gourmet hotspot of Northern Ireland and overlooked Moroccan gem, Casablanca.

Take a peek behind the scenes with a few of tales behind the photos – and see how to shoot architecture such as a pro as photographer André Vicente Gonçalves speaks united states through his show on Barcelona’s buildings.

The Hassan II Mosque could be the biggest in Morocco © Philip Lee Harvey / Lonely Planet

The Hassan II Mosque could be the largest in Morocco © Philip Lee Harvey / Lonely Planet


Photographer Philip Lee Harvey took this shot of the Hassan II Mosque – whoever 200-metre minaret could be the world’s tallest – inside underrated Moroccan metropolis of Casablanca.

‘simply west associated with mosque is really a promenade which, inside cool nights, turns into a destination to fulfill, talk and stay seen. But at first light, it had been deserted and quiet, except for the remote call to prayer from the mosque. I Enjoy the muted tones caused by the soft sunrise light mixed with the ocean spray, and exactly how the mosque commands attention.’

Follow Philip on Instagram at @philip_lee_harvey_photographer to discover a lot more of his work at

In Māori, the glowworms are called ‘titiwai’ – water stars © Justin Foulkes / Lonely Planet Traveller

In Māori, the glowworms are known as titiwai – water stars © Justin Foulkes / Lonely Planet


Checking out the North Island’s hidden corners by campervan, author Mike MacEacheran and professional photographer Justin Foulkes headed underground in to the Waitomo Caves, a labyrinthine system of caverns and streams.

‘We were for an after-hours hunt for the luminescent glowworm’, says Mike. ‘Descending in to the deepest of chambers with regional speleologist Angus Stubbs, we soon discovered ourselves recast as Gollums, knee-deep in water, and alone within an echoey, pitch-black cavern: the right horror movie set. Such darkness, it absolutely was a remarkably tricky shot for Justin for – he required around 20 mins for every single contact with capture the startling worms nesting above our heads.’

Follow @MikeMacEacheran

Unesco-listed Kaziranga is really a haven for wildlife © Jon Stokes / Lonely Planet

Unesco-listed Kaziranga is just a haven for wildlife © Jon Stokes / Lonely Planet


Photographer Jon Stokes discovered a herd of water buffalo while checking out Assam’s Kaziranga nationwide for the function on northeast India.

‘While other automobiles were chasing more exotic specimens like rhinos and tigers, we had been kept alone utilizing the buffalo, who were quickly comfortable in our presence. Looking down the telephoto lens, you’re met with how large they are – how big vehicles – and their powerful horns. You observe the smaller details such as the symbiotic relationship between the buffalo plus the egrets. These small wild birds are like sidekicks, jumping about on their backs and around their legs. The juxtaposition of frantic egrets therefore the slow-moving buffalo had been fascinating.’

Follow Jon on Instagram at @jonstokes1 and find out a lot more of their work on

Barcelona is abundant with Art Nouveau architecture © André Vicente Gonçalves

Barcelona is full of art nouveau architecture © André Vicente Gonçalves


This month’s picture tale features André Vicente Gonçalves’ shots of windows, forming collections from urban centers across Europe – like Barcelona, pictured. André describes just how he shoots:

‘we make an effort to shoot as frontally possible, that will be not always easy as a result of hurdles like cars and trees. Whenever I’m able to, we shoot by having a telephoto lens, and try to be because far as you are able to to lessen distortion and get the correct perspective. Illumination normally essential – I would like to be constant so that everything makes sense when seen together. I like to photograph with neutral light to prevent shadows – sometimes We take a day to photograph one street, shooting half each morning and half in the afternoon’.

Follow André on Instagram at @andrevicentegoncalves and discover more of their work at

May 2017 Newstand addressFind Lonely Planet Traveller UK in UK shops and newsagents, digitally on iTunes,Google Play and Zinio, or subscribe from anywhere at

Follow us on Instagram at @lonelyplanetmags and Twitter at @LPTraveller.


LP Pathfinders: top articles from March 2017

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is really a marvel from all perspectives © Gaurung Bhatt / Lonely Planet

You Pathfinders never cease to amaze united states with all your adventures. Each month we’re spoilt for choice for amazing websites and March was no exclusion.

Take a look at well-trodden locations like Agra and Venice from a new angle; have pleasure in a delicious tipple in Czech Republic’s postcard-perfect wine region; set off the beaten track in brand new Plymouth, brand new Zealand; and fill out your Namibian travel itinerary with some stunning pit stops.

Just How To see the Taj Mahal from every angle – Audrey Bergner

We love this article serves a double purpose. Firstly as hack for seeing a vintage favourite from brand new perspectives, and as being a guide for checking out Agra – a city that typically acts, for some travellers, only as being a pit end for the Taj Mahal. Audrey’s gorgeous pictures and tips and tricks get this a very engaging post.

This writer and YouTuber has an insatiable situation of wanderlust. Follow her web log at

Revelry and relaxation in Czech Republic’s wine region – Liz Villasenor

Forget Prague and pilsner, locate a totally new part of this Czech Republic in the shape of picturesque Southern Moravia. Here, amongst fairy-tale castles and rolling countryside, Liz extends to grips utilizing the neighborhood tipple and introduces us towards the idea of ‘wine cup necklaces’.(A hands-free ingesting receptacle?! Now that’s a savvy innovation.)

Liz’s MO would be to support you in finding the greatest approaches to take a break and luxuriate in life. Follow the woman weblog at

Dropping in deep love with Brand New Plymouth, Taranaki – Dan James

Dan’s lighthearted and humourous tone get this to post a joy to see. We love that he combines an even more narrative approach having (extremely comprehensive) list-style guide to offer his readers the entire picture of New Plymouth – complimented by some lovely, large images – as well as manage to help them plan their journey.

This traveller is on a objective to generally meet as numerous faces around the world as you can. Follow his blog at

Explore Venice in actions of Carlo Scarpa – Katia Waegemens

Architecture is this kind of important element of exploring a new place. Fascinating history and culture could be writ large even in the littlest information on buildings and monuments, so we’d to spotlight this piece by Katia which takes a have a look at Venice through the works of architect Carlo Scarpa. It’s always great to see travellers finding new approaches to explore well-travelled destinations.

Katia is enamoured with Venice since a household journey in 1987. Follow her weblog at

13 fascinating places you don’t wish to miss in Namibia – Jurga Van Steenbergen

The very first thing that attracts you in are those gorgeous golden tints synonymous with Namibia’s wilderness landscapes. What follows is a fantastic post that takes you for a journey to find ancient stone carvings, incredible wildlife, breathtaking landscapes, ghost towns and where to get a slice of world-famous apple cake.

This writer loves to travel from the beaten track with all the current children in tow. Follow her weblog at


Find out what else the Lonely earth Pathfinders are up to (or join yourself!) by checking out the Travel Bloggers: your stories forum on Thorn Tree.

What to expect from your Milford Sound Cruise

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Whether you’ve arrived into Milford Sound under your own steam via the Milford Track, or ridden the exciting 950m (3100ft) final descent from the Homer Tunnel to sea level by bus, we’re sure you’ll agree it is a magical place. The scale of the granite mountain faces, the flooded glacial valleys, and the mostly untouched forests, are simply breathtaking. Rudyard Kipling described this place as the eighth wonder of the world; it’s easy to see why.

Mitre Peak and its reflection in the still water of the Fiord.A still day on Milford Sound gives a perfect reflection of Mitre Peak and the surrounding peaks.

So where does the name Milford Sound come from?

Milford Sound has had a bunch of name changes since it was discovered in 1812 by Sealer Captain John Grono, who named it Milford Haven after his home town in Wales. As us Kiwis have become more conscious of conservation, and protecting our Maori culture and influence, Milford Sound became Milford Sound/Piopiotahi in 1998. But wait! There’s more! Milford Sound is actually incorrectly named… A sound is a river valley which has been flooded by the ocean, and just like so much of our dramatic South Island, Milford was formed by glaciers, and so it’s a fiord. This is a popular trivia question, so take note for your New Zealand adventure!

Milford Sound has several permanent waterfalls, including Stirling Falls – more than three times the height of Niagara Falls. And Lady Bowen Falls; a short distance from the wharf area. Seeing as the granite landscape doesn’t absorb a drop of the annual 6,412mm (252in) rainfall, it made sense for Bowen Falls to be used to power the small town of Milford Sound.  It is during the regular periods of rain in Milford when the waterfalls really come alive. Hundreds of new falls cascade down the steep faces of the mountains, and if you catch Milford on a rainy day, why not name your own?

Group of kayaks approach Lady Bowen FallsA group of Kayakers approach Lady Bowen Falls.

Overnight Cruise on Milford Sound

If you choose to take an overnight cruise on Milford Sound, you’ll be choosing luxury, tranquillity, and stunning natural beauty. You’ll board the ‘Milford Wanderer’ mid afternoon and cruise the 15km (9.3miles) out to the Tasman Sea, passing by Lady Bowen Falls, and getting close enough to Stirling Falls to feel the fresh spray from the Wanderer’s deck. As the afternoon fades into the coloured light of evening the captain will drop anchor in a sheltered cove, where you can go exploring with specialist nature guides, either by kayak or in the vessel’s small craft, until it’s time to climb back on board for your carvery buffet dinner and some stargazing with a glass of New Zealand wine.

Milford Wanderer sails the fiord.The Milford Wanderer cruises, under sail, on the fiord.

The next morning we suggest emerging from your private cabin in time to watch the sunrise, it should help to clear your head if you really enjoyed the Kiwi wine! Then tuck in to a hearty buffet breakfast. Your captain will once again point the Milford Wanderer in the direction of the Tasman Sea, take this opportunity to do some wildlife spotting: Dolphins of three different species, New Zealand Fur Seals, and Fiordland Crested Penguins can all be seen at the right time of year in the Sound, alongside New Zealand’s vast array of native and introduced bird life. Occasionally, and most recently in 2016, a pod of Sperm Whales made the 15km (9.3miles) trip into Milford from the coast, marine biologists attributed this to the uncharacteristically low levels of rainfall for that time of year, which in turn allowed Phytoplankton to thrive, the whales’ main food source. If you get to see whales on your cruise you’ll be among a very lucky few – don’t forget your camera!

A seal swims amongst kayakersA New Zealand Fur Seal playing amongst the kayaks.

Finally the Milford Wanderer will return to dock at the wharf, and we’re sure you’ll disembark rejuvenated, full of good food and great memories, to continue your New Zealand adventure.

Highlights of the Overnight Cruise:

  • Full length Milford Sound Cruise.
  • Optional access to a section of the Milford Track (guided).
  • Three course buffet dinner, fully licensed bar, cooked or continental breakfast.
  • Overnight on the Fiord in Harrison Cove.
  • Specialist Nature Guides for duration of the trip.

 Check out our Tui trip, Essence of the South Island, for an itinerary that includes the overnight option.

Day Cruise on Milford Sound

Several of our itineraries involve cruises on Milford Sound, it’s definitely one of the best ways to get out there and do it, to get up close with nature. The day cruise is included in our Weka itinerary, as well as our Kiwi, and Manuka trips.

Several companies operate daytime cruises from Milford Sound wharf, and we always aim to pick the most personal experience for our guests. We like the guys who only allow their vessel to be booked to half capacity, leaving you with plenty of room to chill out, roam around the decks, or visit the open wheel house and have a yarn with the Captain.

The two-hour Milford experience starts with a slow cruise up the left side of the fiord. Your captain will point out hanging forest, permanent waterfalls, and name some of the tallest peaks. The specialist nature guides on board can also help answer your questions about the geology and wildlife.

Once your vessel arrives at the Tasman Sea, the captain will turn her around and head slowly back up the opposite side of the glacial valley. On the return journey they like to point the bow towards Stirling Falls, and give you a chance, if you want, to be drenched by the spray of one of Milford’s highest permanent waterfalls. If there’s rain and wind, keep an eye out for Milford’s waterfalls to nowhere – try and grab a photo of the cascade before the wind blows it away.

A day trip boat points its bow into Stirling Falls.A day trip boat points its bow into Stirling Falls.

We know that Milford Sound is right up there on many people’s bucket lists, and can be the greatest reason our guests choose to come to New Zealand in the first place. We have put together a list below of our trips that include either the overnight cruise, or the day trip. If you’d rather have a workout whilst you explore Milford, check out our Rimu itinerary for a kayaking option, or read our page on kayaking Milford Sound here.

kayakers taking a break on Milford SoundTwo kayakers enjoy a moment of quiet on Milford Sound.

Whichever you choose, know that the majesty of this place is reserved by its remoteness, and that by making the journey to Milford Sound itself, you are experiencing somewhere special, somewhere truly New Zealand in all its rawness, and somewhere that will stay with you long after you leave.





  • Exercise a high degree of caution in Asia due to the high risk of terrorist activity, civil unrest and criminal activity, plus the high rate of automobile accidents. Pay close attention to your personal safety always and monitor the media for information regarding possible new security or security dangers.
  • On 31 December 2016, america, United Kingdom and Israel all issued warnings of terror threats to areas frequented by foreigners.  Areas in southwest India, resorts, beaches, and festivals had been detailed the type of areas in which travellers should keep a high level vigilance​. See Safety and security.
  • We consistently get reports that terrorists are intending assaults in India, including in regions frequented by Westerners. We assess that attacks could happen anywhere whenever you want with minimum caution, including in areas frequented by Australians, such as for example religious web sites, areas and festivals. See Safety and security.
  • Security of women is a concern in Asia. Women should just take specific care in every areas of India and workout care, even in the event they have been travelling in a group. See Safety and security.
  • Violent protests and demonstrations happen periodically throughout Asia. See Security And Safety.
  • Indian authorities have actually changed withdrawn 500 and 1,000 rupee records with new 500 and 2,000 rupee notes.  Commercial banks and also the Reserve Bank of Asia no further change the old 500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes for new money. It really is now a penal offense to hold more than 10 units of old 500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes.
  • Foreigners are permitted to exchange foreign exchange around 5,000 rupees (around $A100) weekly at banks and foreign currency bureaus. Remember that some travellers have reported difficulties in trading Australian $100 records for local money in Asia. Understand cash and valuables section under Safety and security to find out more.
  • Australians must get yourself a visa before visiting India. Eligible Australians may use electronically in advance for the e-Tourist Visa (eTV) for single-entry visits of 30 days or less. eTV holders can enter at a restricted amount of immigrations ports. All other Australian visa applicants need to make an appointment online ahead of submitting their visa application. See Entry and exit.
  • Driving in Asia is unpredictable and the wide range of road traffic deaths is high. See regional travel.
  • Air quality in Asia varies dramatically, especially in cold temperatures, with major towns experiencing high levels of regular smog and hefty particulate air pollution which are often bad for certain delicate teams. Look for medical advice in the event that you want to check out India and therefore are concerned about the consequences of polluting of the environment. See Wellness.
  • There are several parts of India in which we advise Australians to reconsider your need to travel, or avoid all travel. See Safety and security.
  • See Travel Smart for general advice for many travellers.

Entry and exit

Visas and passports

Australians need a visa to enter Asia. Visas needs to be arranged just before arrival. For information about visas, start to see the Indian tall Commission site.

An electric Tourist Visa (e-TV) scheme can be obtained online to eligible Australians for tourism-related travel of 30 days or less. An e-TV actually solitary entry visa. It should be acquired at least four days before arrival in India and that can simply be used at designated ports of entry. It should never be considered as a visa on arrival. Carry a printed copy regarding the e-mail verification of the e-visa (named an electronic travel authorisation or ETA) plus formal visa is supposed to be affixed within passport upon arrival in Asia. Long queues in many cases are experienced at immigration counters in Asia, regardless of visa type.

Not totally all air-ports in Asia allow passengers to enter with an e-TV. Just 16 designated airports enable entry by having an e-TV. Should you want to enter the united states through places that are not included on list, you need to request an Indian visa prior to arrival via an Indian tall Commission, Consulate, Embassy or agent. In the event that you arrive having an e-TV at an international airport or edge crossing where in actuality the e-TV isn’t recognised, you’ll not manage to apply for any visa. You will end up denied entry to India and deported. Travellers keeping an e-TV may exit from any authorised immigration check point in India.

If you don’t have valid passport and visa you might be deported by the Indian authorities. The Australian tall Commission or Consulates General in India cannot facilitate your stay in the event that you arrive without the right documentation. Begin to see the Government of India’s e-TV and Ministry of Residence Affairs web sites for more information on electronic visa scheme, including repayment techniques.

Volunteers: Australians who want to undertake any form of paid or unpaid volunteer work (including pupils visiting Asia in New Colombo Arrange) should talk about relevant visa demands making use of their neighborhood Indian diplomatic objective well in front of any travel.

Visa along with other entry and exit conditions (like currency, traditions and quarantine laws) can transform at brief notice. Contact the Indian High Commission for the latest information. If for example the passport is lost or taken while you are in Asia, you need to obtain a replacement travel document from the nearest Australian mission as well as an exit visa through the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs.

There are hefty penalties, including jail sentences, for overstaying your visa.

Make sure that your passport has at least 6 months’ validity from your in the offing date of return to Australia.

Currency restrictions

Indian guidelines controlling the import and export of Indian rupees, foreign exchange, along with other goods can transform. Contact the nearest High Commission, Embassy or Consulate of Asia for the most up to date information.

Vaccination certificate requirements

The Indian Bureau of Immigration has set down certain wellness regulations for entering and leaving India. If you arrive in Asia from a yellowish Fever endemic area, you need to present a vaccination certificate for yellowish fever.
Information on India’s vaccination requirements is available on Indian Government’s Bureau of Immigration website.

Enrollment requirements

If you should be about to stay in India for over 180 days, you need to register within fortnight of arrival aided by the Foreigners Regional Registration Office (FRRO) in brand new Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata, or because of the Superintendent of Police in other areas. More information on visa registration is available at the Bureau of Immigration web site. Failure to join up may create a fine or jail phrase, or prevent your departure from Asia until authorization is issued by the Bureau of Immigration.

Security and safety

Jammu and Kashmir – Ladakh region: Exercise a high degree of care into the Ladakh area of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Travellers should consider the safety environment whenever deciding to go to Ladakh. All happen to be the spot must be via Manali, or by atmosphere toward town of Leh, to prevent potential problem areas elsewhere in state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Jammu and Kashmir – Cities of Jammu and Srinagar (like the Jammu-Srinagar highway): Reconsider your must travel to the urban centers of Jammu and Srinagar, including the Jammu-Srinagar highway, as a result of danger of armed clashes, terrorist attacks and violent demonstrations. If you go Srinagar, do this by atmosphere.

Other Parts of Jammu and Kashmir: don’t to journey to the rest of this state of Jammu and Kashmir, because of the danger of armed clashes, terrorist tasks and violent demonstrations, particularly in rural areas and areas near to the border with Pakistan. Previously, attacks have targeted tourist buses. There are also isolated incidences of kidnapping of foreigners in Kashmir.

There have been recent widespread violent protests within the Kashmir Valley causing a quantity of fatalities and serious casualties. Additional authorities enforcements have been implemented toward region. If you should be travelling in or through Srinagar stay vigilant, avoid protests or big gatherings, proceed with the advice for the local authorities as well as your travel operator and monitor the area media.

Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh and Telangana: Maoist insurgents, called Naxalites, usually conduct assaults in rural and forested regions of Chhattisgarh. Border areas with neighbouring states may also be vulnerable to Naxalite physical violence, particularly Odisha, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Telangana.

Borders with Pakistan: don’t to travel into the immediate vicinity of the edge with Pakistan (north and western Asia), besides on worldwide edge crossing at Atari, India and Wagah, Pakistan. In 2014, a terrorist attack regarding the Pakistani side associated with the Atari-Wagah edge crossing killed at least 55 people and injured 200. People to the border crossing should keep a higher amount of vigilance and reconsider their need certainly to travel during durations of heightened stress across the type of Control. Landmines pose a serious risk along some stretches associated with the India-Pakistan edge. In July 2015, gunmen in Gurdaspur region of Punjab, 15 kilometres from Pakistan edge, attacked a coach, wellness centre and police place killing as much as 10 people. In October 2016, villages across the India-Pakistan edge in Punjab were temporarily evacuated as being a precaution against escalating cross-border firing.

North-eastern states of Assam (except Guwahati), Nagaland and Manipur: Reconsider your should journey to these areas as a result of the threat of armed robbery, kidnapping, extortion, and separatist and insurgent violence, including in rural areas. Insurgent groups have actually attacked civilians and bombed buildings in these states. On 26 January 2017, seven near-simultaneous explosions happened in Charaideo, Bibrugarh, Sivasagar and Tinsukia districts in the state of Assam, and a further two explosions in Imphal Ain the state of Manipur. From 28 January to 2 February 2017, violent protests against local elections occurred in Kohima and Dimapur into the state of Nagaland where protests set municipal buildings and automobiles burning. On 5 August 2016 terrorists attacked an industry at Balajan Tinali in Kokrajhar region inside state of Assam killing at least 14 civilians.


On 7 March 2017, an explosion happened on board a passenger train travelling between Bhopal and Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh. The reason for the explosion remains under research.

On 31 December 2016, the United States, great britain and Israel all issued warnings of terror threats to areas frequented by foreigners.  Areas in southwest Asia, resorts, beaches and festivals had been listed those types of areas in which travellers should maintain a top level of vigilance.

We still get reports that terrorists are organizing attacks in India and now we assess that assaults could take place anywhere at any time with little if any caution. Assaults could happen at holiday destinations, places where foreigners gather or target foreigners. Travellers should keep heightened vigilance in public areas, like spiritual websites, markets and festivals.

Terrorist assaults in India have actually involved numerous, consecutive explosions and resulted in a high range fatalities. Past attacks have actually aimed to inflict mass casualties.

Militants are recognized to have crossed the border into India using the intention of performing attacks in the past, which is most likely they’ll still try to do this. Terrorist groups regularly issue statements threatening to launch attacks in India.

In early 2016, Indian security agencies arrested numerous suspected terrorists they accuse of plotting attacks in Asia. The Indian national regularly problems public alert warnings about possible terrorist assaults. Take such alert warnings seriously and give a wide berth to any areas identified as a possible target of assault.

The danger of terrorism exists in all Indian towns and tourist centres. Previously, terrorists have actually targeted areas frequented by tourists including resorts, markets, tourist web sites, transportation hubs and public transportation sites and spiritual websites. Assaults have targeted neighborhood courts, sporting events and cinemas, and Indian security and governmental establishments. Major tourist websites and shopping centres are potential goals for assault.

Consider neighborhood security conditions and arrangements when deciding where to see. There are restricted security measures in position on public transportation, such as for example buses and railways. Protection arrangements at airports have already been improved, showing the threat of terrorist attacks against Indian aviation interests.

Significant secular and religious holidays and durations of religious significance could offer terrorist teams an opportunity or pretext to stage an attack. Be vigilant into the duration surrounding times of national significance, such as Republic Day (26 January) and Independence Day (15 August).

Terrorism is really a risk around the world. See our Terrorist Threat Overseas bulletin for more information.

Civil unrest/political stress

Violent protests and demonstrations happen occasionally and often in an instant throughout Asia. Civil unrest and communal violence have in the past advertised an important amount of life.

International events, governmental developments in your community and local events can trigger demonstrations in India, usually causing disruptions to public transport.

Religious ceremonies and gatherings attended by large crowds can lead to dangerous and life threatening incidents, such as for instance stampedes. In response to such activities, Indian authorities may impose curfews and restrict activity in affected location.

In the eventuality of a protest or demonstration, monitor international and regional media for information concerning your safety and security and stick to the directions of neighborhood authorities.

Criminal Activity

Ladies should simply take particular care in India, including in major metropolitan areas and holiday destinations, even though travelling in a group. Workout vigilance constantly associated with day, avoid walking in less populous and unlit areas, including city roads, town lanes and beaches, and be mindful whenever travelling in taxis and rickshaws. Avoid travelling alone on public transportation, autos and taxis, especially through the night. Foreign females are subjected to undesired attention and more severe harassment and attack. Successful prosecutions are unusual. See our travelling females web page to learn more.

You can find persistent allegations and news reports of intimate misconduct involving spiritual teams and their leaders in Asia. Australians visiting Asia for such religious purposes should know these dangers.

Petty theft is common in crowded areas including areas, trade fairs, expos, and airports, and on buses, metros and trains, including instantly and long-distance trains. Thieves on motorcycles commonly snatch neck bags and jewelry.


Be familiar with scams involving train tickets, taxis, temple donations and local tourist guides. If you are the victim of petty criminal activity or a scam, report it immediately toward nearest authorities section. Despite the fact that they could never be able to get the cash or items right back, they are able to issue an official loss report for insurance coverage purposes.

Common frauds consist of:

  • Tour package scam: a guide either fraudulently offers a trip package or ‘proves’ to the traveller that their current tour package is invalid after which proceeds to sell their very own package.
  • Card skimming: Skimming devices are acclimatized to duplicate card details from magnetic strip and copied onto a blank card your unlawful uses. There’s a risky of skimming at ATMs.
  • Guide solutions: A complete stranger poses as ‘guide’ and takes the unsuspecting victim on a trip of tourist areas. At an opportune minute plus in an isolated area, the guide attempts to rob and/or molest (in the event of females) the target.
  • Touts/agents: Touts/agents who’re current around federal government workplaces where foreigners would require prior approval like the Foreigner Regional Registration Office, offer quicker services for the cost.


Drink-spiking remains a concern throughout India. Travellers have now been robbed and assaulted after consuming ‘spiked’ drinks or meals on public transportation and in resort hotels, restaurants and pubs. Such incidents are unusual at business-class resorts and upscale pubs and restaurants. The risk is greater in smaller establishments plus in areas particularly New Delhi, Goa and Himachal Pradesh state.

Cash and valuables

Withdrawal of 500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes

In November 2016, Indian authorities withdrew all 500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes in circulation. New 2,000 and 500 rupee records were released and they are in circulation.

Commercial banks additionally the Reserve Bank of India not any longer trade the old 500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes for new money. Its now a penal offense to keep above 10 devices associated with the old 500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes.

Usage of cash through ATMs is slowly time for normal and cash shortages at ATMs are occurring less frequently.

Foreigners are allowed to switch foreign currency as much as 5,000 rupees (around $A100) weekly at banking institutions and foreign exchange bureaus. 

Know that some travellers have reported problems in exchanging Australian $100 notes for regional money in Asia. The Australian High Commission has given a statement making clear that the Australian federal government has no intends to withdraw the AUD100 note from blood circulation.

Understand web site associated with Reserve Bank of Asia to find out more.

Other suggestions about cash and valuables

Be careful when receiving modification or working in cash as fake money is in blood circulation.

Your passport actually valuable document that is popular with crooks whom may make an effort to make use of your identification to commit crimes. It should be kept in a safe place. You are required by Australian law to report a lost or taken passport on the web or contact the nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate at the earliest opportunity.

Regional travel

​Travelling by road

Travelling by road in Asia is dangerous. Accidents are prevalent and also the quantity of road traffic deaths is high. Regional driving practices in many cases are undisciplined and aggressive, and vehicles tend to be defectively maintained. Roadways in many cases are of poor quality and congested, and distributed to pedestrians, carts, cattle alongside livestock. Travelling by road at night is particularly dangerous as a result of insufficient or non-existent road illumination and also the presence of other cars driving with headlights off or on high beam. Cars may travel within the incorrect direction, usually without warning.

According to the World wellness Organization (WHO), you might be three times more likely to be killed in an automobile accident in Asia than in Australia. 

Driving: To drive in India, you’ll want whether valid Indian driver’s licence or a global Driving allow as well as an Australian driving licence which can be legitimate limited to the first 3 months of the stay. An Australian licence alone just isn’t sufficient. Bike cyclists must wear helmets. If you intend to drive a motorcycle, make sure that your travel cover policy covers bike riding and workout extreme caution.

If your car strikes a pedestrian or cow, the occupants are in risk of being assaulted or becoming victims of extortion. If it is unsafe to keep during the scene of a accident, motorists may alternatively wish to go directly to the nearest authorities place. For further advice, see our road travel web page.

Taxis: Pre-paid taxis at airports or taxis scheduled from hotels ought to be utilized rather than hailing them regarding street. You ought not utilize personal unmarked vehicles as taxis.

Buses and trains: Coach and train services tend to be overcrowded and motorists may lack adequate training. Buses and trains in many cases are also poorly maintained and fires can happen. If you opt to travel by train, familiarise yourself because of the crisis exits.

Restrictions on motion

State and Union Territory governments may impose limitations on movement of foreign tourists specifically states and near tribal areas. You may have to get authorization from Indian authorities to check out those areas, especially in the northeast. Permits are expected for Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, areas of Kulu District and Spiti District of Himachal Pradesh, tribal regions of Odisha, edge aspects of Jammu and Kashmir, some regions of Uttrakhand (formerly Uttaranchal), parts of Rajasthan adjacent to the worldwide border, the Tibetan settlements between Hunsar and Madikeri in Karnataka, Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar isles.

You will find strict charges for entering a protected or limited area without prior permission. Indian authorities generally speaking require at the least four weeks to process permit applications. Talk to the nearest High Commission, Embassy or Consulate of India; and/or Ministry of Residence Affairs, Foreigners Division, NDCC-II Building, Jai Singh path, New Delhi.


Fatal tiger assaults have actually taken place in Asia. Monkeys may try to steal things from site visitors at temples and busy attractions. Travellers should respect wildlife laws and park laws, usage reputable and professional guides and keep maintaining a safe and legal distance when observing wildlife.

Other local travel issues

Guidelines maintained by trip operators, including adventure activities, may possibly not be comparable to those in Australia. Check always operators’ qualifications and safety equipment beforehand and make fully sure your travel cover policy covers your in the pipeline activities. If appropriate security equipment is not available, make use of another provider. Always use available safety equipment, such as for example lifejackets or seatbelts, even in the event the locals never.

Tourist ships, ferries as well as other tiny commercial art cannot carry life preserving/saving equipment.

Delays in travel can be expected throughout Asia, including considering extra protection measures, particularly inside lead around as well as on times of nationwide significance particularly Republic Day (26 January) and Independence Day (15 August).

Fog frequently affects north India, especially during December and January, and may delay air and train travel, that can make road travel more harmful.

Touts tend to be bought at airports, railway stations and bus channels and may make use of aggressive tactics to persuade travellers to get tickets on tours. They could n’t have any link with the relevant commercial companies and you’ll be overcharged.

Airline security

The Australian Government does not provide info on the safety of individual commercial airlines or journey paths. See rather the Aviation protection Network site for informative data on aviation security in Asia.

Please additionally reference our general flights page for informative data on aviation security and safety.

Laws And Regulations

You might be susceptible to the neighborhood rules of Asia, including those that appear harsh by Australian standards. If you should be arrested or jailed, the Australian Government does exactly what it may to assist you under our Consular Services Charter. But we can not get you away from difficulty or out of jail. Research legislation before travelling, especially for a long stay.

Commercial surrogacy: international nationals are no further permitted to commission surrogacy in Asia. For information on worldwide surrogacy in Asia see our Global Surrogacy bulletin and our international births, adoptions and surrogacies page for further information.

Things concerning dowry have led to some Australian residents being subject to arrest upon arrival in Asia. The work of offering or getting a dowry is prohibited. Claims for dowry can result in an arrest alert notice being issued with a court at the request of a aggrieved celebration.

Homosexuality actually unlawful offense in India. Though prosecutions are unusual, a conviction for homosexual behavior could carry a maximum phrase of life imprisonment. See our LGBTI travellers page.

Australians working in Asia should see Austrade’s market information for India and our advice to Australian business travellers.

Appropriate processes in Asia generally take several years to conclude. Australians arrested for major offences could be imprisoned for quite some time before a verdict is reached in their situation. The necessity for official approvals by Indian authorities can cause delays in consular solutions being supplied to Australians in prison.

Penalties in India for many crimes, like murder, kidnapping for ransom, armed robbery with murder, and treason, might attract the death penalty. Charges for medication offences are serious and may consist of mandatory sentences while the death penalty.

You’re required by law to carry your passport (having a legitimate visa) all the time and you will need your passport to check on into hotels and register for routes.

Trespassing and photography of airports, armed forces establishments and dams is illegal with charges ranging from three to 14 years imprisonment.

Some places of worship and temples don’t allow people to simply take pictures or videos; travellers need certainly to check upfront with the temple’s administrative workplace.

Its unlawful to transport or make use of satellite phone in Asia without permission. The penalty for doing so could add a fine and/or imprisonment.

Appropriate drinking many years are priced between 18 to 25 with respect to the state, and certainly will vary by liquor kind. Some states permit liquor use for medicinal purposes just, as well as others need you to hold a permit buying, transport or digest alcohol. Some states prohibit the carriage of alcohol introduced from outside of the state, and police may perform checks on vehicles to enforce this law. Travellers should always check state liquor rules before they see.

Deliberate maiming or killing of a cow is an offense which could attract a punishment of up to 5 years imprisonment in certain states.

Foreigners about to undertake missionary work in India need a suitable visa. Missionaries with no appropriate visa risk deportation. Some states within Asia have passed away legislation making it an offense to induce conversion to another faith by force or other enticement.

Strict regulations apply for the possession and export of antiquities, with charges all the way to 3 years imprisonment. Contact the nearest tall Commission, Embassy or Consulate of India or the Indian Central Board of Excise and Customs the most current information.

Some Australian criminal laws and regulations, like those associated with money laundering, bribery of international public officials, terrorism, forced wedding, feminine genital mutilation, kid pornography, youngster intercourse tourism, and commercial surrogacy, affect Australians overseas. Australians who commit these offences while overseas may be prosecuted in Australia.

Regional customs

There are strict codes of dress and behaviour in India, specially at spiritual sites, and you ought to take care never to offend. Physical contact between women and men in public places isn’t considered appropriate. If in question, seek regional advice.

The timing regarding the Islamic holy thirty days of Ramadan differs from 12 months to 12 months. For information about how this may influence travel, see our Ramadan bulletin.

Information for double nationals

The Indian constitution doesn’t recognise dual nationality. However, neighborhood law permits people of Indian origin in several countries, including Australia, to apply for international Citizenship of India. Further advice can be obtained from international Citizenship of India element of the Indian Government’s Ministry of Residence Affairs website.

Our Dual Nationals page additionally provides relevant information.


Insurance, vaccinations along with other considerations

Sign up for comprehensive travel insurance that may cover any overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation, just before depart. Confirm that your insurance coverage covers you for the entire time you’ll be away and check what circumstances and activities aren’t a part of your policy. It doesn’t matter how healthier and fit you might be, if you can’t manage travel cover, you can’t manage to travel. The Australian federal government will not purchase a traveller’s medical costs overseas or medical evacuation costs.

It is vital to consider carefully your real and mental health before travelling overseas. We encourage you to give consideration to having vaccinations just before travel. At the least eight days if your wanting to depart, schedulae an appoitment with your doctor or travel hospital for basic health check-up, also to talk about your travel plans and any implications for your wellness, especially if you’ve got an existing medical condition. The World wellness Organization (WHO) provides information for travellers and our health and wellness pages also provide of good use information for travellers on remaining quite healthy.

Healthcare facilities

Medical facilities providing a sufficient standard of treatment are located in Asia’s major towns and cities. But in remote and rural areas facilities can be very restricted or unavailable. In case of a serious illness or accident, medical evacuation might necessary.

“health tourism”, including for aesthetic and experimental stem mobile remedies, is becoming more prevalent in India. Australians should ensure that they don’t attend discount or uncertified medical establishments where criteria can be lacking. See our Medical Tourism page to learn more.

Decompression chambers are observed at the Indian naval base in Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar isles, and at the Goa Medical College, Goa.

Travel health concerns

Instances of influenza A(H1N1) are common in Asia through the winter season. If you are travelling to Asia, discuss influenza vaccination demands with your GP or even a travel health professional before departing Australia.

There is a high incidence of food-borne, water-borne and other infectious diseases in India (including meningitis, cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diphtheria and rabies). Plain tap water in Asia isn’t safe to drink, boil all drinking tap water or drink water in bottles with intact seals, and prevent ice cubes and raw and undercooked meals. Seek medical advice if you have a fever or are susceptible to diarrhoea.

Never consume home-made or unlabelled alcohol as it may be adulterated with harmful substances.

Situations of dengue fever are commonplace in Asia throughout the duration following the monsoon. To learn more about dengue temperature, see the World Health organization’s dengue reality sheet. Malaria actually danger in many areas of Asia, including major urban centers. There is also a threat of other mosquito-borne diseases (including Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya temperature and filariasis). Simply take strict precautions against being bitten by mosquitoes, including using an insect repellent, wearing looser fitting, light colored clothing and ensuring your accommodation is mosquito evidence. Look for medical advice if you have a fever.

Quality of air

Major cities in Asia experience regular high quantities of smog, specially during the colder months. Those with pre-existing medical conditions, particularly cardiac and breathing, are particularly affected. If you live in or want to check out Asia and generally are worried about the amount of polluting of the environment you should seek medical advice. Follow advice from local authorities about solutions to reduce visibility. You are able to monitor the pollution index for several metropolitan areas through resources such as for instance SAFAR or the Dehli Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) websites. Home elevators air quality may also be found on the World wellness Organization web site.

Where you might get help

With regards to the nature of one’s enquiry, your very best choice can be to make contact with your family, friends, flight, travel agent, tour operator, manager or travel insurer. Your travel insurer should have a 24 hour crisis quantity.

In the event that matter pertains to criminal dilemmas, contact the authorities on 100.

In the event that matter relates to complaints about tourism products, contact the service provider directly.

The Consular Services Charter explains just what the Australian national can and can’t do in order to help Australians overseas. For consular help, see contact details below:

Australian Tall Commission, Brand New Delhi

No. 1/50 G Shantipath (Gate 1)
New Delhi Asia 110021
Telephone: (91 11) 4139 9900
Facsimile: (91 11) 2687 2228

Australian Consulate General, Mumbai

Level 10, A Wing
Crescenzo Building
Opp MCA Cricket Club
G Block, Plot C 38-39
Bandra Kurla Complex
Mumbai 400 051
Telephone: (91 22) 6757 4900
Facsimile: (91 22) 6757 4955

Australian Consulate General, Chennai

9th Floor, Express Chambers
Express Avenue Estate
Whites Road
Chennai 600 014
Tamil Nadu
Telephone: (91 44) 4592 1300
Facsimile: (91 44) 4592 1320

See the Australian High Commission website for information regarding opening hours and short-term closures that may impact solution provision.

In a consular crisis if you should be struggling to contact the tall Commission it is possible to contact the 24-hour Consular crisis Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or 1300 555 135 within Australia.

Extra information

Natural disasters, serious weather and environment

Annual monsoon rains from June to October causes extensive flooding and landslides, particularly in the states of Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar within the north and eastern, as well as in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka within the south. Before, floods have affected many people, resulting in many fatalities. If you’re travelling through the monsoon period, contact your trip operators to test whether tourist solutions at your in the pipeline location have already been affected. For more info understand Asia Meteorological Department internet site.

Cyclones occur commonly in Indian waters in the duration April-December, specially round the Bay of Bengal in eastern Asia. Coastal plus some inland areas of Asia are susceptible to storm surges, particularly Odisha, western Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala, Lakshadweep as well as the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In case of an approaching cyclone, proceed with the instructions of neighborhood authorities and monitor news and weather reports. You are able to obtain updated advice on cyclone activity through the Asia Meteorological Department internet site. Our serious climate page also incorporates of use home elevators what direction to go in a cyclone.

Earth tremors are typical in India, particularly in the North-eastern states, and can cause landslides in hilly and mountainous areas. In the eventuality of an earthquake chances are that serious disruptions to solutions will occur. Informative data on volcanic activity can be obtained through the international catastrophe Alert and Coordination System.

All oceanic parts of the world can experience tsunamis, however in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, there is a more regular occurrence of large, destructive tsunamis because of the many large earthquakes along major tectonic dish boundaries and ocean trenches.

In the event of an all natural disaster, stick to the advice of local authorities.

Extra Resources

History of Machu Picchu

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Archaeological evidence uncovered around the site suggests that the area was first used for agricultural purposes back in 760 B.C.

Machu Picchu Historical Photo

The war of Vilcambamba Pachacutec in 1440 established the first settlement at the site. It was called the Tahuantinsuyo Empire which was later followed by the formation of the government of Manco Capac.

It is thought that Machu Picchu was first inhabited by 300-1000 inhabitants, who were of the highest class or “Llactas”.

The valleys around these areas were important for their agricultural contribution, however after death of the Emperor Pachacutec, it lost its importance, with the establishment of new sites like Ollaytantambo and Vilcambamba. The building of these new sites by his successors, in more accessible terrain made Machu Picchu less appealing.

From 1527 to 1532, two brothers Huáscar and Atahualpa fought against each other in a civil war over the Inca Empire. Their father, Inca Huayna Capac had given each brother a section of the empire to manage, one in Huáscar in Cuzco and Atahualpa in Quito. When Huayna Capac and his heir, Ninan Cuyuchi, died somewhere between 1525 and 1527, the two brothers Atahualpa and Huáscar went to war over who should rule.  The population who had come to live in the Machu Picchu area from rural or remote locations left after the war ended to return to where they came from. Later another brother, Manco Inca was sent into exile in Vilcambamba, and Machu Picchu was deserted.

Antonio Raimondi was an Italian geographer and scientist from Milan who visited Machu Picchu in 1851. In 1867 Augusto Berns arrived to mine the site.

Hiram Bingham re-discovered the ruins in 1911. He documented and publicised his “discovery”.

Photo of Hiram BinghamPhoto of Hiram Bingham

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